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Glossary of Forestry Terms

Below, you will find a database of forestry and investment terms providing trusted definitions from the world of trees.

The content of this glossary has been kindly provided by several authoritative sources including the WWF, the UK governmental organisation Forest Research, and the NC State University.

We publish definitions where the expertise of the author can be verified and cited so as to provide a current and trustworthy resource.

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A

Acre

An area of land measuring 43,560 square feet. A square 1-acre plot measures 209 feet by 209 feet; a circular acre has a radius of 117.75 feet.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Aesthetics

(a) Sensitivity to or appreciation of the forest’s beauty through recognition of its unique and varied components. (b) Beauty through an orderly appearance.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Afforestation

The establishment of a stand of trees or forest in an area where there was no previous tree cover.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

All-Aged Or Uneven-Aged Management

The practice of managing a forest by periodically selecting and harvesting individual trees or groups of trees from the stand while preserving its natural appearance. Most common in hardwood forests.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

All-Aged Or Uneven-Aged Stand

A forest stand composed of trees of different ages and sizes.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Amphibian

Any of a class of vertebrates that regulate their body temperature externally; lay shell-less eggs in wet areas; live in water during early development and live both in water and on land as adults; and use lungs, gills and their skin for breathing. Most have four legs and smooth, moist skin without scales.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Ancient Woodland

Woodland which has been in continuous existence since 1600 (1750 in Scotland).

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Angiosperm

A plant that has true flowers and bears its seeds in fruits. In temperate zones, many angiosperms are deciduous trees, while in tropical zones, many are evergreen trees. Examples include oaks, willows, maples and birches.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Annual

A plant that lives or grows for only one year or one growing season.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Annual Ring

The combination of one earlywood layer (light colored) and one latewood layer (dark colored) seen in a cross-section of a tree. One annual ring usually represents one year of growth.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Annual Wildlife Seed Mixture

A mixture of soybean, millet, cow pea, sorghum, lespedeza, buckwheat, and other seeds from which single-season plants are grown to serve as food or protective cover for wildlife. Some mixtures reseed naturally, while others require reseeding, light disking, and fertilization.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Arboretum

A botanical garden devoted to trees.

The Word Forest

UK Registered Charity

Kindly Provided by Wordforest, used with permission.

Artificial Regeneration

The growth of new trees through seeding and planting.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Asset

Anything of value that can be converted into cash. Assets can be classified as either short- term or long-term assets. A short-term asset is expected to be consumed within one year, while long-term assets are to be consumed in more than one year.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Awaiting Validation

Status for a Woodland Carbon Code project or group that is undergoing assessment by a certification body.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

B

Bankable Project

A project that is financially viable, meaning that it generates an acceptable risk-return on investment. If investors assess the bankability of the project to be acceptable, then the required capital for the project will be provided. The bankability of a project is established already during the phase of project development, laying out the revenue generating activities and an optimal risk- sharing model.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Bark

The tough exterior covering of a woody root or stem that protects the tree from injury caused by insects and other animals, by other plants, by disease and by fire.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Basal Area

(a) The cross-sectional area (in square feet) of a tree trunk at breast height (4.5 feet above the ground). For example, the basal area of a tree that measures 14 inches in diameter at breast height is about 1 square foot. (b) The sum basal areas of the individual trees within 1 acre of forest. For example, a well-stocked pine stand might have a basal area of 80 to 120 square feet per acre.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Bedding

Land prepared before planting in the form of small mounds. The prepared land concentrates topsoil and elevates the root zone of seedlings above temporary standing water. Fertilizer is often incorporated into the bedding.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Best Management Practices

Procedures employed during harvesting and/or timber stand improvement activities that reduce erosion and prevent or control water pollution.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Best Management Practices (Bmp)

Management practices that maintain and improve the environmental values of forests associated with soils, water, and biological diversity; primarily used for the protection of water quality. These practices are often used during and following harvesting of timber.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Biltmore Stick

A stick similar to a yardstick in appearance, but usually about 25 inches long. One side is scaled to read a tree’s diameter by holding the stick horizontally at arm’s length and against the tree at breast height. A Merritt hypsometer runs along one edge of the stick and is scaled to read a tree’s height from 66 feet away from the tree’s base. These two measurements are then used to find the tree’s volume according to the volume table printed on one face of the stick.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Biodiversity

The variety of life forms in a given area; can be categorized in terms of number of species, variety of plant and animal communities, genetic variability or some combination of these categories.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Bioenergy

Energy from any fuel that is derived from biomass.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Renewable energy produced from organic matter that is used directly as fuel or has been converted into liquids or gasses for use as a fuel.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Biological Diversity

The variety of life forms in a given area. Diversity can be categorized in terms of the number of species, the variety in the area’s plant and animal communities, the genetic variability of the animals, or a combination of these elements.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Biomass

Any organic matter, including forest and mill residues. Forest biomass is usually obtained through in-woods chipping of all or some portion of trees, to include tops and limbs, for energy production.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Biosecurity

A set of precautions that aim to prevent the introduction and spread of harmful organisms. These may be pests, pathogens or invasive species.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Bird

Any of a class of vertebrates that regulate their body temperature internally, have bodies that are covered almost entirely with feathers and have forelimbs modified as wings that enable most to fly.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Block

An area of land or timber that has been defined for management purposes. One block may be composed of stands of different species or ages.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Board Foot

A unit of measure equal to a board that is 1 inch thick, 12 inches long and 12 inches wide, or 144 cubic inches.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

A unit of wood measuring 144 cubic inches. A 1-inch by 12-inch shelving board that is 1 foot long is equal to 1 board foot. Board foot volume is determined by: [(length (feet) x width (inches) x thickness (inches)) ÷ 12]

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Bole

The main trunk of a tree.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Bonds

A fixed income instrument that represents a loan made by an investor to a borrower (typically corporate or governmental).

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Boreal Forest

The sub-Arctic forest of the high northern latitudes that surrounds the North Pole and is mainly composed of coniferous trees.

The Word Forest

UK Registered Charity

Kindly Provided by Wordforest, used with permission.

Brash

Branch wood and leaf material that is generally too small in diameter to be considered part of the timber product from a harvesting site.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Briquettes

Similar to wood pellets (see below) but larger, briquettes are made from compressed wood fibres and used for heating.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Broadleaf

A class of trees that have broad, flat leaves of many different shapes; most are deciduous; also called hardwood because most broad-leaved trees have harder wood than do conifers. Examples include oak, hickory, maple and ash.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Broadleaves

Trees that do not have needles or cones, such as oak, birch and beech. A few, such as alder, have cone-like structures for their seeds which are not true cones.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Bucking

A harvesting function of cutting a felled tree into shorter lengths.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Buffer Rules

See riparian buffer rules.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Buffer Strip

A narrow zone or strip of land, trees, or vegetation bordering an area. Common examples include visual buffers, which screen the view along roads, and streamside buffers, which are used to protect water quality. Buffers may also be used to prevent the spread of forest pests.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Build-Operate-Transfer (Bot)

Through a Build-Operate-Transfer model a public entity gives a concession to a private company to build and operate a project for a set time period (usually 20 or 30 years). After this period, control of the project is returned to the public entity.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

C

Cable Skidder

See skidder.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Cambium

A thin layer of specialized cells within a tree’s trunk that divide to produce new inner bark cells to the outside and new sapwood cells to the inside. The narrow band of cells that is responsible for the tree’s growth in circumference.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Canopy

The “roof” of the forest formed by the crowns of the tallest trees.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

A layer or multiple layers of branches and foliage at the top or crown of a forest’s trees.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Capital Expenditures (Capex)

CAPEX are capital expenditures to buy, maintain, or improve its fixed assets. CAPEX includes purchasing new assets or using money to extend the life of an existing asset.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Capital Gains

Profit on the sale of an asset such as timber, land, or other property. Reporting timber sales as capital gains provides certain tax advantages over reporting revenues as ordinary income.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Carbon Credits

In this context carbon credits are defined as tradable certificates that provides companies the right to emit one ton of carbon dioxide per credit. Carbon credits can be traded on carbon markets, generating financial returns.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Carbon Sequestration

Process that removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere — trees, grasses, and other plants uptake carbon dioxide during photosynthesis and store it in biomass.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Carbon Sink

A forest, ocean, or other natural environment viewed in terms of its ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

The Word Forest

UK Registered Charity

Kindly Provided by Wordforest, used with permission.

Carrying Capacity

The maximum number of healthy wildlife that a given habitat or area can support without degradation of the habitat.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Cashflow

The net amount of cash and cash-equivalents being transferred into and out of a business. Positive cashflow enables a company to settle debts, reinvest in its business and redistribute money to shareholders.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Cellulose

The scientific name for wood fiber.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Cement Bonded Particleboard

Sheet material manufactured under pressure, based on wood and other vegetable particles bound with hydraulic cement and possibly containing additives.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Certify

To meet a set of agreed upon standards that address social, economic, and environmental considerations that promote sustainable forestry. Three common forest certification programs in the United States are Forest Stewardship Council, Sustainable Forestry Initiative, and American Tree Farm System.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Chain

A distance of 66 feet.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Chain Of Custody

The supply chain wood follows from the forest to the consumer, to include processing, manufacturing, storage, and distribution links. With a chain of custody certificate, the wood or fiber used in a product can be traced back along the chain of custody to a certified forest.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Chip-N-Saw

A cutting method used in cutting lumber from trees that measure between 6 and 14 inches diameter at breast height. The process chips off the rounded outer layer of a log before sawing the remaining cant or rectangular inside section into lumber. Chip-n-saw mills provide a market for trees larger than pulpwood and smaller than sawtimber.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Chipboard

(see Particleboard).

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Clear-Cut Harvest

A harvesting and regeneration method that removes all trees within a given area. Clear-cutting is most commonly used in pine and hardwood forests, which require full sunlight to regenerate and grow efficiently.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Clearcut

A harvesting and regeneration method that removes all trees within a given area. Most commonly used in pine and hardwood forests that require full sunlight to regenerate and grow efficiently.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Clearfell Areas

Sites where all trees have been felled at once. In non-clearfell areas, only some trees are felled at any one time.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Clinometer

An instrument that is held at eye level to read stump height and merchantable or total height when standing 50 and 66 feet from the base of the tree. The difference between the two readings yields the height.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Clustering

A sampling technique where the entire population is divided into groups, or clusters, and a random sample of these clusters is selected. All (or a selection of) observations in the selected clusters are included in the sample. Cluster sampling is often used when a random sample would produce a list of subjects so widely scattered that surveying them would prove to be far too expensive.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Collateral

Collateral is an asset that a lender accepts as security for extending a loan. If the borrower defaults on the loan payments, the lender may seize the collateral and sell it to recoup some or all of his losses.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Competition

The struggle between trees to obtain sunlight, nutrients, water, and growing space. Every part of the tree—from the roots to the crown—competes for space and food.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Confidence Interval

An estimated range of values that is likely to include an unknown population parameter (i.e. a fixed value for the population as a whole). The confidence interval around an estimate is derived from the sample data, and is used to indicate the reliability of the estimate.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Confor

Confederation of Forest Industries.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Conifer

A class of trees that are evergreen, have needle or scalelike foliage and conelike fruit; often called softwood. Examples include pine, hemlock, cedar and cypress.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Conifers

Trees with needles and cones, such as spruce, pine and larch.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Conservation

The protection, improvement, and wise use of natural resources for present and future generations.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Conservation Easement

A voluntary legal agreement between a landowner and a land trust, or government agency, that limits the use of the property in order to protect the conservation values of the land.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Consulting Forester

An independent trained professional forester working for a company that provides services to the general public on a fee or contractual basis.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Controlled Burn

See prescribed burn.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Conversion Factor

Numerical factor by which a quantity that is expressed in one set of units must be multiplied in order to convert it into another set of units.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Convertible Loan

This loan gives the debtholder the possibility to exchange all or a portion of the loan principal for equity. This exchange happens at a predetermined conversion rate within a set period.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Coppice

Trees that are cut near ground level (or sometimes higher, in which case they are called pollards), causing them to produce many small shoots. These shoots are harvested every few years at a relatively early age for products such as staves, fencing, fuel and charcoal. “Coppice with standards” includes scattered trees that are left to grow as normal (“standards”).

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Cord

A standard unit of measure equivalent to 128 cubic feet of round or split wood. A standard cord measures 4 feet by 4 feet by 8 feet. A face cord or short cord is 4 feet by 8 feet by any length of wood under 4 feet.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

A stack of round or split wood consisting of 128 cubic feet of wood, bark, and air space. A standard cord measures 4 feet by 4 feet by 8 feet. A face cord or short cord is 4 feet by 8 feet by any length of wood under 4 feet.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Cost-Share Assistance

An assistance program offered by various state and federal agencies that pays a fixed rate or percentage of the total cost necessary to implement some forestry or agricultural practice.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Cover

(a) Any plant that intercepts rain drops before they reach the soil or that holds soil in place. (b) A hiding place or vegetative shelter for wildlife from predators or inclement weather.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Credit Enhancements

Credit enhancements refer to improving credit risk of a company by providing reassurance to a lender.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Crop Tree

Any tree selected to grow to final harvest or to a selected size. Crop trees are selected for quality, species, size, timber potential, or wildlife value.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Cross Laminated Timber (Clt)

A large-scale, prefabricated, solid engineered wood panel consisting of several layers of kiln-dried lumber boards stacked in alternating directions, bonded with glue, and pressed to form a solid, straight, rectangular panel.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Crown

The branches and foliage at the top of a tree.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Crown-Class

A tree classification system based on the tree’s relative height, foliage density, and ability to intercept light. Crown-class measures past growth performance and calls attention to crop trees that could benefit from future thinning and harvest operations. There are four classifications: Dominant Trees — Larger-than-average trees with broad, well-developed crowns. These trees receive direct sunlight from all sides and above. Codominant Trees — Average-to-fairly large trees with medium-sized crowns that form the forest canopy. These trees receive full light from above but are crowded on the sides. Intermediate Trees — Medium-sized trees with small crowns below the general level of the canopy. Intermediate trees receive little direct light, are poor crop trees, and should be removed during thinning operations. Suppressed or Overtopped Trees — Small trees that grow below the tree canopy and receive no direct sunlight from any direction.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Cruise

A survey of forestland to locate timber and estimate its quantity by species, products, size, quality, or other characteristics.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Cull

A tree or log of marketable size that is useless for all but firewood or pulpwood because of crookedness, rot, injuries, or damage from disease or insects.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Cutting Contract

A written, legally binding document used in the sale of standing timber. The contract specifies the provisions covering the expectations and desires of both buyer and seller.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Cutting Cycle

The planned time interval between major harvesting operations within the same stand—usually within uneven-aged stands. For example, on a 10-year cutting cycle in a hardwood stand, trees are harvested every 10 years.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

D

Daylighting

A practice in which trees shading an access road are removed to increase the sunlight on the roadway and along its periphery. This relatively inexpensive practice maximizes forest edge and cover for wildlife and maintains passable roads year-round.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Dead Wood

Non-living woody biomass not contained in the litter, either standing or lying on the ground. For wood carbon reporting, the minimum was 15 cm diameter for standing and lying deadwood, and 7 cm dbh (diameter at breast height) for fallen trees.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Deciduous

A group of trees that lose all of their leaves every year.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Decomposition

The process by which organic material such as leaves and branches are broken down by bacteria, fungi, protozoans and the many different kinds of animals that live in the soil.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Defra

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Delimber

A mobile machine with flailing chains or knives used in the harvesting process to remove the limbs from trees.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Deliveries

The quantities of UK-grown roundwood that are delivered to processors (mills) or for other uses (such as woodfuel and exports). Note that for sawmills and round fencing mills, the deliveries figure reported is actually the quantity of roundwood consumed by the mill, which may differ from the true deliveries figure if the levels of input stocks vary.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Dendrology

The study of trees; tree identification.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Design-Build-Own-Operate- Transfer (Dboot)

DBOOT is a public-private partnership model in which a private company conducts a large development project under contract to a public-sector partner. It is a variation on the BOT model and differences in the fact that the contractor also designs and owns the project during the project period.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Diameter At Breast Height (Dbh)

Tree diameter measured at 4.5 feet above ground level.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

The diameter of a tree measured in inches at breast height—a standard 4.5 feet above the ground.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Diameter Tape

A steel measuring tape that has a scale calibrated to read a tree’s diameter when wrapped around the tree’s circumference.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Diameter-Limit Cutting

A selection method in which all marketable trees above a specified diameter are harvested. Diameter-limit cutting can lead to long-term degradation of the stand.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Direct Or Broadcast Seeding

(a) Sowing seed for broad coverage from the air or on the ground. (b) Seeding of forest stands, roadways, or specified plots for wildlife.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Direct Production

Timber that is sold after the trees have been felled by the woodland owner or their contractors.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Discount Rate

Cashflow in the future does not equal today’s cashflow due to uncertainty in projections and because cash today is expected to be worth more tomorrow when it produces an interest or Return On Investment. Reversely, that means that cash in the future has a lower value in the present. The discount rate refers to the rate that is used to discount future cashflow in order to compensate for these risks and determine its present value. A high discount rate refers to greater uncertainty, lowering the present value of future cashflow.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Dividend

A dividend is a token reward paid to shareholders for their investment in a company’s equity. It usually originates from the company’s net profits.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Drum Chopping

A site preparation technique in which logging debris is leveled by a bulldozer pulling a large drum filled with water. Chopped areas are often burned to further reduce debris and control sprouting before seedlings are planted.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

E

Earlywood

Wood cells produced at the beginning of a tree’s growing season that are generally light in color. Also called springwood.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Ecological Succession

The gradual change of plant and animal communities over time.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Ecology

The science or study of the relationships between organisms and their environment.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Ecosystem

A biological community of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water and mineral soil that interact. An ecosystem can be of any size — e.g., log, field, pond, woodlot, or Earth’s biosphere. See ecosystem services.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Ecosystem Services

Benefits people obtain from the goods and services produced by an ecosystem — e.g., water and air purification, nutrient recycling, recreation, biomass for fuel. See ecosystem.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Edge

The transition between two different types or ages of vegetation.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Endangered Or Threatened Species

A species is endangered when the total number of remaining members may not be sufficient to reproduce enough offspring to ensure survival of the species. A threatened species exhibits declining or dangerously low populations but still has enough members to maintain or increase numbers.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Endangered Species

Any species that has been classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or a state wildlife agency as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A species is endangered when the total number of remaining members may not be sufficient to reproduce enough offspring to ensure survival of the species.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Endemic

A species or taxonomic group that is only found in one particular country or geographic area.

The Word Forest

UK Registered Charity

Kindly Provided by Wordforest, used with permission.

Endowment Fund

An endowment fund is an investment fund that is established by a foundation that makes consistent withdrawals from invested capital. Endowment funds are typically funded entirely by donations and are structured in a way that the principal amount invested remains intact while investment income can be provided for immediate funding in order to keep a non- profit company operating efficiently.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Environment

The sum of all external living and non-living conditions and influences that affect the development and survival of an organism.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

The interaction of climate, soil, topography, and other plants and animals in any given area. An organism’s environment influences its form, behavior, and survival.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Erosion

The wearing away or removal of land or soil by the action of wind, water, ice or gravity.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

The wearing away of land or soil by the action of wind, water, or ice.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Esg

Environmental, social and Governance (ESG) criteria are a set of standards for a company’s operations that responsible investors use to evaluate companies in which they might want to invest.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Establishment

The first five to ten years or formative period that ends once young trees are of sufficient size that, given adequate protection, they are likely to survive at the required stocking.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Eu

European Union. It currently comprises 28 member states: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the UK.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Eurostat

The statistical office of the European Union, situated in Luxembourg. Its task is to provide the European Union with statistics at European level that enable comparisons between countries and regions.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Evapotranspiration

The evaporation of water from the soil and the transpiration of water from the plants that live in that soil. Approximately one-quarter of a forest’s annual rainfall returns to the air through evapotranspiration.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Even-Aged Management

A forest management method in which all trees in an area are harvested at one time or in several cuttings over a short time to produce stands that are all the same age or nearly so. This management method is commonly applied to shade-intolerant conifers and hardwoods.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Evergreen

A group of trees that do not lose all of their leaves every year but go through a gradual replacement by dropping only their oldest leaves each year. Instead of being bare in winter, these trees have leaves all year.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

F

Fao

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, responsible for the Forest Resources Assessment and for compiling international statistics on production and trade of wood products.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Feller Buncher

A machine used in the harvesting process that can cut a tree, hold it, and move to the next tree to cut. After one or more trees are cut, the machine places the trees in a small pile to be moved to a landing.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Fibreboard

Panel material with thickness equal to or greater than 1.5mm, manufactured from lignocellulosic fibres with application of heat and/or pressure. The bond is derived either from the felting of the fibres and their inherent adhesive properties or from a synthetic binder added to the fibres.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Firebreak

Any nonflammable barrier used to slow or stop fires. Several types of firebreaks are mineral soil barriers; barriers of green, slow-burning vegetation; and mechanically cleared areas.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

First-Loss Position

An investment that will suffer the first economic loss if the underlying assets lose value or are foreclosed on.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Flashboard Riser

A versatile water control device used in the coastal plain to manage water movement. Water levels are physically altered to control fire and maintain beneficial soil characteristics to reduce soil oxidation and soil damage caused by heavy equipment

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Flat Or Straight Planting

Planting trees directly into the ground without beds or, in some cases, without first moving logging debris.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Foliage

The leaves of a tree or other plant.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Forage

Vegetation such as leaves, stems, buds, and some types of bark that can be eaten for food and energy.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Forb

Any herb other than grass.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Forb(S)

Any herb other than grass.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Forest

In the United Kingdom, there is no formal definition of “forest”; the term is often used for large woodland areas (especially conifers) or for old Royal hunting preserves such as the New Forest or the Forest of Dean.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

An ecosystem dominated by extensive tree cover, frequently consisting of stands of trees that are often characterized based on species, age, and size class. Forests are often categorized based on their purpose — e.g., urban forest, industrial forest, non-industrial private forest.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Forest Canopy Cover

Forest Certification

The means of conserving forests by promoting responsible forestry practices that address social, economic, and environmental considerations. Forests are evaluated according to an agreed upon set of standards and certified as being well managed by a qualified independent auditor (or certifier). Wood or wood products from those forests are then labeled so that consumers can identify them as being obtained from a sustainable forest. See certify.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Forest Cover

Forest Floor

The lowest level of the forest that is made up of tree seedlings, dead leaves and needles, grasses, ferns, flowers, fungi, and decaying plants and logs.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Forest Management

Caring for a forest so that it stays healthy and vigorous and provides the products and values the landowner desires.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

(a) Proper care and control of wooded land to maintain health, vigor, product flow, and other values (soil condition, water quality, wildlife preservation, and beauty) to accomplish specific objectives. (b) The practical application of scientific, economic, and social principles to forest property.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Forest Management Plan

Written guidelines for current and future management practices recommended to meet an owner’s objectives.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Forest Service (Fs)

An executive agency of the Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA). Forest Service fulfils DAERA’s legal obligations for forestry in Northern Ireland.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Forest Stewardship Plan

A written document listing activities that enhance or improve forest resources (wildlife, timber, soil, water, recreation and aesthetics) on private land over a five-year period.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Forest Type

A designation or name given to a forest based on the most abundant tree type or types in the stand; groups of tree species commonly growing in the same stand because their environmental requirements are similar. Examples of North Carolina forest types include (a) pine; (b) mixed hardwood; (c) cypress, tupelo and black gum; and (d) oak and hickory.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Groups of tree species commonly growing in the same stand because their environmental requirements are similar. North Carolina examples include pine and mixed hardwood; cypress, tupelo, and black gum; and oak and hickory.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Forestland

Land that has a minimum stocking level of 10% of forest trees and is at least 1 acre in size and 120 feet in crown width. This includes land that will be naturally or artificially regenerated.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Forestry

The art and science of managing forests to produce various products and benefits including timber, wildlife habitat, clean water, biodiversity and recreation.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

The science, art, and practice of managing and using trees, forests, and their associated resources for human benefit.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Forestry And Land Scotland (Fls)

The Scottish Government agency responsible for managing the national forests and lands in Scotland, created on 1 April 2019.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Forestry Commission (Fc)

The government department responsible for forestry matters in England. The Forestry Commission’s functions in Wales transferred to the Welsh Government and to Natural Resources Wales on 1 April 2013. The Forestry Commission’s functions in Scotland transferred to Scottish Forestry and to Forestry and Land Scotland on 1 April 2019. The Forestry Commission is supported by two agencies; Forestry England and Forest Research.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Forestry England (Fe)

The Forestry Commission agency responsible for managing the national forests in England. Prior to April 2019, Forestry England was known as Forest Enterprise England.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Forestry Research (Fr)

The Forestry Commission agency responsible for forestry and tree related research (including statistics).

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Forwarder

A machine, usually self-loading, used in the harvesting process for hauling a log completely off the ground from the stump to a landing.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Forwarding

A harvesting function of hauling a log completely off the ground from the stump to a landing by a forwarder.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Fsc

Forest Stewardship Council.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Fuel Loading

A buildup of fuels, especially easily ignited, fast-burning fuels such as pinestraw.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Fund

A pool of financial resources, often invested and professionally managed, dedicated for a specific purpose.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Fund-In-Fund

A pooled investment fund that has a portfolio which contains different underlying portfolios of other funds.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Fusiform Rust

A disease resulting in a canker or swollen area on the limbs or trunks of pine trees from orange spores produced by infected oak leaves. Fusiform rust degrades stem quality and tree value, often leading to breakage, disfigurement, and eventual death of the tree.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

G

Gdp Deflator

Gross Domestic Product at market prices deflator. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the total economic activity. Growth in GDP reflects both growth in the economy and price change (inflation). Applying a GDP deflator to time series of prices or price indices removes the effects of inflation to enable a comparison of changes in price that are not caused by inflation.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Germinate

To begin to grow, usually following a period of dormancy and in response to favourable conditions. For example, the sprouting of a seedling from a seed.

The Word Forest

UK Registered Charity

Kindly Provided by Wordforest, used with permission.

Gestation Period

The gestation period is the timespan from investment to profit generation. The longer the period, the riskier a project becomes for investors.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Girdling

A physical cutting or disruption of the cambial sap flow within a tree. Girdling by humans, animals, or insects can often kill a tree.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Grace Period

A set length of time after the due date during which a financial obligation may be met without penalty or cancellation. Sometimes, grace periods can last several years to allow projects that have low cashflow in the onset of a project to become bankable.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Grant

Grants are financial resources that do not have to be paid back. Typically, a grant is provided to facilitate a purpose or stimulate performance.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Grapple Skidder

See skidder.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Great Britain (Gb)

England, Wales and Scotland.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Green Tonne

The weight measurement of timber freshly felled before any natural or artificial drying has occurred.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Green Tree Reservoir (Gtr)

A wooded area that has been intentionally flooded to benefit migratory ducks and waterfowl. GTRs may be planted with a grain crop, such as millet, the summer before the winter flooding. The GTR can be an effective, low-cost method of luring waterfowl into forested tracts.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Gross Value Added (Gva)

A measure of the contribution to the economy of each individual producer, industry or sector in the United Kingdom.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Group Selection

(a) The removal of small groups of trees to regenerate shade-intolerant trees in the opening (usually at least ¼ acre). (b) A specific type of selective cutting.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Growing Stock

The volume of timber in living trees. It is also often referred to as the standing volume.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Guarantees

A financial guarantee is a contract by a third party (guarantor) to back the debt of a second party (creditor) to ensure that the creditor can pay off its debt to the investor(s).

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Gymnosperm

A plant whose seeds are not enclosed in flowers. Most gymnosperms produce their seeds on the surface of the scales of female cones and are pollinated by wind. Conifers are the most common type of gymnosperm.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

H

Habitat

An area in which a specific plant or animal naturally lives, grows and reproduces; the area that provides a plant or animal with adequate food, water, shelter and living space.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

(a) An area in which a specific plant or animal can naturally live, grow, and reproduce. (b) For wildlife, habitat is the combination of food, water, cover, and space.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Hardwood

The wood of broadleaved trees, such as oak, birch and beech; a term sometimes used for the broadleaved trees themselves.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Hardwoods

Trees with broad, flat leaves as opposed to coniferous or needled trees. Wood hardness varies among the hardwood species, and some are actually softer than some softwoods.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Hardwoods (Deciduous Trees)

Trees with broad, flat leaves as opposed to coniferous or needled trees. Wood hardness varies among the hardwood species, and some are actually softer than some softwoods.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Heartwood

The central core of a tree, which is made up of dense, dead wood and provides strength to the tree.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Hectare

A metric unit of square measure, equal to 100 acres (2.471 acres or 10,000 square metres).

The Word Forest

UK Registered Charity

Kindly Provided by Wordforest, used with permission.

Hectare (Ha)

Unit of area defined as 10,000 square metres (100 m by 100 m), approximately equivalent to 2.47 acres.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

High Forest

Trees capable of growing to be suitable for timber production (compare with coppice).

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

High-Grading

A harvesting technique that removes only the biggest and most valuable trees from a stand and provides high returns at the expense of future growth potential. Poor quality, shade-loving trees tend to dominate in these continually high-graded sites.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Hm Revenue & Customs (Hmrc)

The United Kingdom’s tax authority.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Hybrid Annuity Model (Ham)

Under a HAM model, the government makes payments in a fixed amount for a considerable time length and consequently in a variable amount for the remaining period. The model was introduced in 2016 in order to revive public-private partnerships and stimulate investments in highway construction in India.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Hypsometer

Any device used for measuring tree height.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

I

Improvement Cut

An intermediate cut made to improve the form, quality, health, or wildlife potential of the remaining stand.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Incentive

A reward for improving forest management. Incentives include reimbursement of some expenses but can also take the form of an abatement of property or income tax.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Increment

The growth rate of standing trees.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Increment Borer

A hollow auger-like tool with a screw bit used to remove core samples from trees.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Interest

Interest is the amount charged on top of the principal originally lent to the borrower. It is the amount the borrower has to pay for the ability to use the money.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

Internal Rate Of Return

The IRR is a financial metric used to estimate how profitable potential investments are. The IRR is a discount rate that makes the Net Present Value of all cashflows equal to zero: today’s value of the expected cashflow equals today’s value of invested cash. In general, the higher a project’s IRR, the more desirable it is to invest in the project. External factors, such as cost of capital or inflation, are left out of the calculation.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

The interest rate at which the net present value of all the cash flows (both positive and negative) from an investment equal zero. It is used as a guideline for evaluating the profitability of an investment. See net present value.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Invasive

Describes species introduced deliberately or unintentionally outside their natural habitats where they have the ability to establish themselves, invade, outcompete natives and take over the new environments.

The Word Forest

UK Registered Charity

Kindly Provided by Wordforest, used with permission.

J

J-Root Or L-Root

An improperly planted seedling that takes a J-shaped configuration in the planting hole. Such seedlings often die prematurely, grow poorly, and are susceptible to windthrow.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Junior Loan

Junior loans have a lower priority than a first or senior lender. In the case of a foreclosure, the senior debt will be paid down first. Therefore, it is considered a subordinate debt.

WWF

Bankable Nature Solutions

Kindly provided by the WWF, Bankable Blueprint, used with permission

K

Kg And Pile

A site preparation method in which stumps are pushed up, sheared off, or split apart by a specially designed blade mounted on a bulldozer. Debris is then piled or placed in long rows (windrows) so that an area can be bedded or flat planted.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Kg Blade

A bulldozer-mounted blade used in forestry and land-clearing operations. A single spike splits and shears stumps at their base.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Kyoto Protocol

A protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that set binding obligations on the industrialised countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

L

Land Expectation Value (Lev)

The value of a bare tract of land that would be used for growing timber in perpetuity. The LEV is the net present value of all revenues and costs associated with growing the timber in perpetuity. See net present value.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Land Use

The human use of land for economic, social, environmental, or other purposes. Land use is often associated with urban development.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Landing

An area designated during harvesting to which logs or trees are brought from where they are cut from the stump to be loaded onto trucks for transporting to the mill.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Latewood

Wood cells produced at the end of the growing season that make up the darker section of an annual ring. Also called summerwood.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Legumes

Plants that produce organic nitrogen from nitrogen gas in the air. These plants, which typically form seeds in pods, include soybeans, peas, alfalfa, lespedeza, and locust.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Lichen

A composite organism made up of a fungus in a co-operative partnership with an alga. Owing to this partnership, lichens can thrive in harsh environments such as mountaintops and polar regions. Characteristically forms a crustlike or branching growth on rocks or tree trunks.

The Word Forest

UK Registered Charity

Kindly Provided by Wordforest, used with permission.

Life Cycle Assessment (Lca)

A process that examines the total environmental impact of a product from extraction of the raw materials to make the product, through production and sale of the product, to the use and disposal of the product.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Limiting Factor

Any requirement for wildlife survival that is in limited supply.

Forestry Association

North Carolina, USA

Kindly Provided by North Carolina Forestry Association, used with permission.

Litter

Non-living biomass with a diameter less than the minimum for dead wood, lying dead in various states of decomposition above the soil.

Forest Research

UK Government Research

© Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of Forest Research

Loader

A machine, used in the harvesting process, with a grapple or tongs and supporting structure designed to pick up logs or trees from a landing for final processing and piling or loading for transportation to the mill.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Log Rule Or Log Scale

A table based on a diagram or mathematical formula used to estimate volume or product yield from logs and trees. Three log rules are used today in North Carolina: Scribner is the common scale for pine; Doyle is the common hardwood scale; and the International 1/4″ Rule best measures mill output, although it is used less frequently than the other log scales.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Logger

An individual who often works for a company harvesting trees for the production of wood products. Also known as a lumberjack. Loggers stay current in their profession by being certified under programs such as prologger or master logger.

NC State University

Forestry Terms

Used with permission, NC State University Authors….  

Mark Megalos

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forestry & Environmental Resources

James Kea

Area Specialized Agent, Forest Resources

Robert Bardon

Associate Dean of Extension, Department Extension Leader & Professor

Forestry & Environmental Resources

 

Long Term Contracts (Ltc)

Sales of roundwood, felled or standing, to customers over a period of more than one year. The second and subsequent years of a long term contract are negotiated after the sale of the first year’s volume.